Doctor’s Day: 22 Types of Specialist Doctors

Do you hesitate before agreeing to see a specialist doctor? Sometimes when you or a relative falls ill, you wonder if you should call your family doctor or directly call a specialist you know. Today is the 1st of July and it is Doctors Day in India. So here’s a list of the important types of doctors and what they can do for your health.


  1. Anaesthesiologists administer anaesthetics to various patients with pain-killing needs. They study the possible anaesthetic reactions, gauge proper dosages for specific cases.
  2. Allergists diagnose and treat home and common allergies, asthma and other immune disorders. The cause of an allergy can be anything from dust, medication, foods, pet hair, pollen or a substance like latex, causing contact dermatitis.
  3. Cardiologists are heart specialists who also treat heart-related blood vessels. They assist and perform heart transplants, and surgery to treat coronary artery disease. Cardiologists’ patients are usually those with a risk of having a stroke or a heart attack. Common conditions include heart murmurs, irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), hypertension and high cholesterol. Paediatric cardiologists diagnose and treat heart complications in children.
  4. Dermatologists treat diseases and conditions of the skin, hair, and nails. These skin specialist doctors treat acne and antiageing, warts, cysts, as well as diseases, like eczema, vitiligo, and skin cancers (melanoma, carcinoma).
  5. Endocrinologists treat gland and hormonal specialist doctors. They treat conditions, such as thyroid diseases, diabetes, infertility, osteoporosis, and lack of growth.
  6. Gastroenterologists treat digestive system disorders, mainly the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, and colon. Common diseases include colon polyps, IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome), GERD, liver disease, and celiac disease.
  7. Haematologists specialise in blood-forming organs and blood diseases and malignancies, including haemophilia, leukaemia, lymphoma, and sickle-cell anaemia.
  8. Neurosurgeons or brain surgeons treat and do surgery on diseases affecting the nervous system and the brain stem. Neurologists diagnose and study serious brain diseases like Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and Dementia.
  9. Nephrologists treat kidney diseases, such as renal failure, kidney inflammation, kidney biopsy, dialysis, chronic kidney disease and cancer. Paediatric nephrologists treat children with kidney problems.
  10. Orthopaedic surgeons treat injuries and diseases of the body’s bones, muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. As a result, orthopaedists do surgery after injuries in the musculoskeletal system.
  11. Obstetrician/ Gynaecologist (OB/GYN) is trained in handling pre-natal care, and childbirth, performing C-sections, and hysterectomies. A gynaecologist is specialised in the female reproductive system, like fertility issues.
  12. Otolaryngologists are also called ENT specialist doctors (Ear, Nose, and Throat doctors). ENTs also treat related parts of the head and neck, tinnitus, loss of hearing, swallowing, smell disorders, and facial deformities.
  13. Oncologists diagnose, prevent and treat cancer, but there are different types of oncologists: Radiation Oncologist, Surgical Oncologist, Medical Oncologist, and Paediatric Oncologist.
  14. Oral surgeons are like orthopaedics for the face. They train for 4 more years after dental school. They perform dental implant surgery, treat tumours in the jaw, and do complex jaw realignment surgery. Dentists like periodontists and orthodontist take care of gums and crowded or missing teeth.
  15. Ophthalmologists are medical and surgical eye doctors, who are trained to do eye surgery, unlike optometrists.
  16. Paediatricians treat children’s illnesses, from immunisation and minor health problems to serious diseases, and surgery.  Paediatricians treat children anywhere from birth to young adulthood. The cutoff limit is usually 18 but varies from doctor to doctor. Some family paediatricians continue to treat adults in their twenties.
  17. Pulmonologists treat the lungs, including cystic fibrosis, COPD (chronic obstructive lung disease), and emphysema.
  18. Psychiatrists treat mental health and talk you through your health as well as prescribe medicines. Psychiatrists are medical doctors, and they often work with psychologists, who have studied the mind and human behaviour, but they cannot write prescriptions.
  19. Plastic surgeons are specialised in various reconstructive surgery, from removing scars, birth defects, nose jobs (Rhinoplasty), to surgery following an injury and post-mastectomy breast reconstruction.
  20. Radiologists diagnose and treat patients using medical imaging methods, like X-rays, MRI, and CT scan.
  21. Rheumatologists treat autoimmune disorders, such as Lupus, or Raynaud’s and musculoskeletal conditions like arthritis (RA) and gout.
  22. Urologists are surgeons who treat problems like incontinence, urinary tract infection (UTI), and an overactive bladder in men and women, including the kidneys and kidney stones. Urologists also treat male reproductive organ issues like erectile dysfunction and prostate cancer.


What kind of doctor do you need?

Most generalists are accustomed to treating the elderly, children, and women. But sometimes you need a doctor who is trained in a particular field of medicine. This usually happens if your family doctor or General Practitioner cannot diagnose or treat your health concern. Nevertheless, you should consult a physician who knows your medical history and can recommend the appropriate specialist doctors. Then you can make an informed decision and get the right treatment.


Why is Doctors Day on 1st July?

Americans celebrate doctors day on March 30th. In Brazil, it is October 18th and it is even a holiday! But Indians mark national doctors day on 1st July, the day that the Bharat Ratna winning Bengali doctor and teacher, Bidhan Chandra Roy (Dr. BC Roy) was born and died. India has made amazing leaps in the medical field and July 1 pays tribute to all the brilliant Indian doctors who have tirelessly strived to improve and lengthen human life, despite all odds.

Get well soon.

On this Doctors Day, we hope you find the best services of a specialist doctor near you.

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